As a result, sanitary landfills were developed to replace the practice of open dumping and to reduce the reliance on waste incineration. In many countries waste was divided into two categories, hazardous and nonhazardous, and separate regulations were developed for their disposal. Landfills were designed and operated in a manner that minimized risks to public health and the environment. New refuse incinerators were designed to recover heat energy from the waste and were provided with extensive air pollution control devices to satisfy stringent standards of air quality.
Modern solid-waste management plants in most developed countries now emphasize the practice of recycling and waste reduction at the source rather than incineration and land disposal. The sources of solid waste include residential, commercial, institutional, and industrial activities. Certain types of wastes that cause immediate danger to exposed individuals or environments are classified as hazardous; these are discussed in the article hazardous-waste management.
All nonhazardous solid waste from a community that requires collection and transport to a processing or disposal site is called refuse or municipal solid waste MSW. Refuse includes garbage and rubbish. Garbage is mostly decomposable food waste; rubbish is mostly dry material such as glass, paper, cloth, or wood.
Garbage is highly putrescible or decomposable, whereas rubbish is not. Trash is rubbish that includes bulky items such as old refrigerators, couches, or large tree stumps. Trash requires special collection and handling. Another type of solid waste, perhaps the fastest-growing component in many developed countries, is electronic waste , or e-waste, which includes discarded computer equipment, televisions , telephones , and a variety of other electronic devices.
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Concern over this type of waste is escalating. Lead , mercury , and cadmium are among the materials of concern in electronic devices, and governmental policies may be required to regulate their recycling and disposal. Solid-waste characteristics vary considerably among communities and nations. American refuse is usually lighter, for example, than European or Japanese refuse. In the United States paper and paperboard products make up close to 40 percent of the total weight of MSW; food waste accounts for less than 10 percent.
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The rest is a mixture of yard trimmings, wood, glass, metal, plastic, leather, cloth, and other miscellaneous materials. In a loose or uncompacted state, MSW of this type weighs approximately kg per cubic metre pounds per cubic yard. These figures vary with geographic location, economic conditions, season of the year, and many other factors.
Waste characteristics from each community must be studied carefully before any treatment or disposal facility is designed and built. Rates of solid-waste generation vary widely. In the United States , for example, municipal refuse is generated at an average rate of approximately 2 kg 4.
Japan generates roughly half this amount, yet in Canada the rate is 2. In some developing countries the average rate can be lower than 0. These data include refuse from commercial, institutional, and industrial as well as residential sources. The actual rates of refuse generation must be carefully determined when a community plans a solid-waste management project.
Most communities require household refuse to be stored in durable, easily cleaned containers with tight-fitting covers in order to minimize rodent or insect infestation and offensive odours.
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Galvanized metal or plastic containers of about litre gallon capacity are commonly used, although some communities employ larger containers that can be mechanically lifted and emptied into collection trucks. Plastic bags are frequently used as liners or as disposable containers for curbside collection. Where large quantities of refuse are generated—such as at shopping centres, hotels, or apartment buildings—dumpsters may be used for temporary storage until the waste is collected.
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Some office and commercial buildings use on-site compactors to reduce the waste volume. Solid-waste management. Well documented case studies will be considered but they must describe results that can be applied beyond the specific location of the case study. Manuscripts that focus on the use of a waste material in a new product are often more suitable for a journal that focuses on the material properties of the product.
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